Ticks are notorious hematophagous ectoparasites and vectors of many deadly pathogens. As an effective vector, ticks must break the strong barrier provided by the skin of their host during feeding, and their saliva contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules that paralyze host defenses. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates immune cell activation at inflammatory sites and is constitutively and highly expressed in skin. Here, we demonstrate that longistatin secreted with saliva of the tick
Anisuzzaman, Takeshi Hatta, Takeharu Miyoshi, Makoto Matsubayashi, M. Khyrul Islam, M. Abdul Alim, M. Abu Anas, M. Mehedi Hasan, Yasunobu Matsumoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Kozo Fujisaki, Naotoshi Tsuji
Many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites, suppress cellular immune responses through activation of type I IFN signaling. Recent evidence suggests that immune suppression and susceptibility to the malaria parasite,
Ashraful Haque, Shannon E. Best, Marcela Montes de Oca, Kylie R. James, Anne Ammerdorffer, Chelsea L. Edwards, Fabian de Labastida Rivera, Fiona H. Amante, Patrick T. Bunn, Meru Sheel, Ismail Sebina, Motoko Koyama, Antiopi Varelias, Paul J. Hertzog, Ulrich Kalinke, Sin Yee Gun, Laurent Rénia, Christiane Ruedl, Kelli P.A. MacDonald, Geoffrey R. Hill, Christian R. Engwerda
Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete
Kenneth K.C. Bramwell, Ying Ma, John H. Weis, Xinjian Chen, James F. Zachary, Cory Teuscher, Janis J. Weis
Michail S. Lionakis, Muthulekha Swamydas, Brett G. Fischer, Theo S. Plantinga, Melissa D. Johnson, Martin Jaeger, Nathaniel M. Green, Andrius Masedunskas, Roberto Weigert, Constantinos Mikelis, Wuzhou Wan, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, Jean K. Lim, Aymeric Rivollier, John C. Yang, Greg M. Laird, Robert T. Wheeler, Barbara D. Alexander, John R. Perfect, Ji-Liang Gao, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Mihai G. Netea, Philip M. Murphy
Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections.
Daisuke Tokuhara, Beatriz Álvarez, Mio Mejima, Tomoko Hiroiwa, Yuko Takahashi, Shiho Kurokawa, Masaharu Kuroda, Masaaki Oyama, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Tomonori Nochi, Hiroshi Sagara, Farah Aladin, Harold Marcotte, Leon G.J. Frenken, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Hiroshi Kiyono, Lennart Hammarström, Yoshikazu Yuki
Vaccine development for the blood stages of malaria has focused on the induction of antibodies to parasite surface antigens, most of which are highly polymorphic. An alternate strategy has evolved from observations that low-density infections can induce antibody-independent immunity to different strains. To test this strategy, we treated parasitized red blood cells from the rodent parasite
Michael F. Good, Jennifer M. Reiman, I. Bibiana Rodriguez, Koichi Ito, Stephanie K. Yanow, Ibrahim M. El-Deeb, Michael R. Batzloff, Danielle I. Stanisic, Christian Engwerda, Terry Spithill, Stephen L. Hoffman, Moses Lee, Virginia McPhun
Influenza A viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a need for alternative or adjunct therapies, as resistance to currently used antiviral drugs is emerging rapidly. We tested ligand epitope antigen presentation system (LEAPS) technology as a new immune-based treatment for influenza virus infection in a mouse model. Influenza-J-LEAPS peptides were synthesized by conjugating the binding ligand derived from the β2-microglobulin chain of the human MHC class I molecule (J-LEAPS) with 15 to 30 amino acid–long peptides derived from influenza virus NP, M, or HA proteins. DCs were stimulated with influenza-J-LEAPS peptides (influenza-J-LEAPS) and injected intravenously into infected mice. Antigen-specific LEAPS-stimulated DCs were effective in reducing influenza virus replication in the lungs and enhancing survival of infected animals. Additionally, they augmented influenza-specific T cell responses in the lungs and reduced the severity of disease by limiting excessive cytokine responses, which are known to contribute to morbidity and mortality following influenza virus infection. Our data demonstrate that influenza-J-LEAPS–pulsed DCs reduce virus replication in the lungs, enhance survival, and modulate the protective immune responses that eliminate the virus while preventing excessive cytokines that could injure the host. This approach shows promise as an adjunct to antiviral treatment of influenza virus infections.
Kobporn Boonnak, Leatrice Vogel, Marlene Orandle, Daniel Zimmerman, Eyal Talor, Kanta Subbarao
The normal flora furnishes the host with ecological barriers that prevent pathogen attack while maintaining tissue homeostasis. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) constitute a highly relevant model of microbial adaptation in which some patients infected with
Nataliya Lutay, Ines Ambite, Jenny Grönberg Hernandez, Gustav Rydström, Bryndís Ragnarsdóttir, Manoj Puthia, Aftab Nadeem, Jingyao Zhang, Petter Storm, Ulrich Dobrindt, Björn Wullt, Catharina Svanborg
Luther A. Bartelt, James Roche, Glynis Kolling, David Bolick, Francisco Noronha, Caitlin Naylor, Paul Hoffman, Cirle Warren, Steven Singer, Richard Guerrant
Mycolactone is a diffusible lipid secreted by the human pathogen
Laure Guenin-Macé, Romain Veyron-Churlet, Maria-Isabel Thoulouze, Guillaume Romet-Lemonne, Hui Hong, Peter F. Leadlay, Anne Danckaert, Marie-Thérèse Ruf, Serge Mostowy, Chiara Zurzolo, Philippe Bousso, Fabrice Chrétien, Marie-France Carlier, Caroline Demangel
No posts were found with this tag.