Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished in either CNP- or NPR-C–depleted backgrounds, confirming that CNP and NPR-C are indispensable for the bone growth–stimulating effect of OSTN. Interestingly, double-transgenic mice of CNP and OSTN had even higher levels of circulating CNP and additional increases in bone length, as compared with mice with elevated CNP alone. Together, these results support OSTN administration as an adjuvant agent for CNP therapy and provide a potential therapeutic approach for diseases with impaired skeletal growth.
Yugo Kanai, Akihiro Yasoda, Keita P. Mori, Haruko Watanabe-Takano, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Yui Yamashita, Keisho Hirota, Yohei Ueda, Ichiro Yamauchi, Eri Kondo, Shigeki Yamanaka, Yoriko Sakane, Kazumasa Nakao, Toshihito Fujii, Hideki Yokoi, Naoto Minamino, Masashi Mukoyama, Naoki Mochizuki, Nobuya Inagaki
Mast cells are classically thought to play an important role in protection against helminth infections and in the induction of allergic diseases; however, recent studies indicate that these cells also contribute to neovascularization, which is critical for tissue remodeling, chronic inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that mast cells are essential for sprouting angiogenesis in a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Although mouse strains lacking mast cells did not exhibit retinal neovascularization following hypoxia, these mice developed OIR following infusion of mast cells or after injection of mast cell tryptase (MCT). Relative hypoxia stimulated mast cell degranulation via transient receptor potential ankyrin 1. Subsequent surges in MCT stimulated retinal endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) and angiogenic factors, leading to sprouting angiogenesis. Mast cell stabilizers as well as specific tryptase and MCP1 inhibitors prevented the development of OIR in WT mice. Preterm infants with early retinopathy of prematurity had markedly higher plasma MCT levels than age-matched infants without disease, suggesting mast cells contribute to human disease. Together, these results suggest therapies that suppress mast cell activity should be further explored as a potential option for preventing eye diseases and subsequent blindness induced by neovascularization.
Kenshiro Matsuda, Noriko Okamoto, Masatoshi Kondo, Peter D. Arkwright, Kaoru Karasawa, Saori Ishizaka, Shinichi Yokota, Akira Matsuda, Kyungsook Jung, Kumiko Oida, Yosuke Amagai, Hyosun Jang, Eiichiro Noda, Ryota Kakinuma, Koujirou Yasui, Uiko Kaku, Yasuo Mori, Nobuyuki Onai, Toshiaki Ohteki, Akane Tanaka, Hiroshi Matsuda
Acute lung injury is a leading cause of death in bacterial sepsis due to the wholesale destruction of the lung endothelial barrier, which results in protein-rich lung edema, influx of proinflammatory leukocytes, and intractable hypoxemia. Pyroptosis is a form of programmed lytic cell death that is triggered by inflammatory caspases, but little is known about its role in EC death and acute lung injury. Here, we show that systemic exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes severe endothelial pyroptosis that is mediated by the inflammatory caspases, human caspases 4/5 in human ECs, or the murine homolog caspase-11 in mice in vivo. In caspase-11–deficient mice, BM transplantation with WT hematopoietic cells did not abrogate endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury, indicating a central role for nonhematopoietic caspase-11 in endotoxemia. Additionally, conditional deletion of caspase-11 in ECs reduced endotoxemia-induced lung edema, neutrophil accumulation, and death. These results establish the requisite role of endothelial pyroptosis in endotoxemic tissue injury and suggest that endothelial inflammatory caspases are an important therapeutic target for acute lung injury.
Kwong Tai Cheng, Shiqin Xiong, Zhiming Ye, Zhigang Hong, Anke Di, Kit Man Tsang, Xiaopei Gao, Shejuan An, Manish Mittal, Stephen M. Vogel, Edward A. Miao, Jalees Rehman, Asrar B. Malik
Overconsumption of high-fat diet (HFD) and sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for developing obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Here we have dissected mechanisms underlying this association using mice fed either chow or HFD with or without fructose- or glucose-supplemented water. In chow-fed mice, there was no major physiological difference between fructose and glucose supplementation. On the other hand, mice on HFD supplemented with fructose developed more pronounced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatomegaly as compared to glucose-supplemented HFD mice, despite similar caloric intake. Fructose and glucose supplementation also had distinct effects on expression of the lipogenic transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c. While both sugars increased ChREBP-β, fructose supplementation uniquely increased SREBP1c and downstream fatty acid synthesis genes, resulting in reduced liver insulin signaling. In contrast, glucose enhanced total ChREBP expression and triglyceride synthesis but was associated with improved hepatic insulin signaling. Metabolomic and RNA sequence analysis confirmed dichotomous effects of fructose and glucose supplementation on liver metabolism in spite of inducing similar hepatic lipid accumulation. Ketohexokinase, the first enzyme of fructose metabolism, was increased in fructose-fed mice and in obese humans with steatohepatitis. Knockdown of ketohexokinase in liver improved hepatic steatosis and glucose tolerance in fructose-supplemented mice. Thus, fructose is a component of dietary sugar that is distinctively associated with poor metabolic outcomes, whereas increased glucose intake may be protective.
Samir Softic, Manoj K. Gupta, Guo-Xiao Wang, Shiho Fujisaka, Brian T. O’Neill, Tata Nageswara Rao, Jennifer Willoughby, Carole Harbison, Kevin Fitzgerald, Olga Ilkayeva, Christopher B. Newgard, David E. Cohen, C. Ronald Kahn
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) (OMIM #260400) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) that is primarily characterized by neutropenia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Seventy-five to ninety percent of patients have compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (sbds) gene. Using trio whole-exome sequencing (WES) in an sbds-negative SDS family and candidate gene sequencing in additional SBDS-negative SDS cases or molecularly undiagnosed IBMFS cases, we identified 3 independent patients, each of whom carried a de novo missense variant in srp54 (encoding signal recognition particle 54 kDa). These 3 patients shared congenital neutropenia linked with various other SDS phenotypes. 3D protein modeling revealed that the 3 variants affect highly conserved amino acids within the GTPase domain of the protein that are critical for GTP and receptor binding. Indeed, we observed that the GTPase activity of the mutated proteins was impaired. The level of SRP54 mRNA in the bone marrow was 3.6-fold lower in patients with SRP54-mutations than in healthy controls. Profound reductions in neutrophil counts and chemotaxis as well as a diminished exocrine pancreas size in a SRP54-knockdown zebrafish model faithfully recapitulated the human phenotype. In conclusion, autosomal dominant mutations in SRP54, a key member of the cotranslation protein-targeting pathway, lead to syndromic neutropenia with a Shwachman-Diamond–like phenotype.
Raphael Carapito, Martina Konantz, Catherine Paillard, Zhichao Miao, Angélique Pichot, Magalie S. Leduc, Yaping Yang, Katie L. Bergstrom, Donald H. Mahoney, Deborah L. Shardy, Ghada Alsaleh, Lydie Naegely, Aline Kolmer, Nicodème Paul, Antoine Hanauer, Véronique Rolli, Joëlle S. Müller, Elisa Alghisi, Loïc Sauteur, Cécile Macquin, Aurore Morlon, Consuelo Sebastia Sancho, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Vincent Procaccio, Anne-Laure Mosca-Boidron, Nathalie Marle, Naël Osmani, Olivier Lefebvre, Jacky G. Goetz, Sule Unal, Nurten A. Akarsu, Mirjana Radosavljevic, Marie-Pierre Chenard, Fanny Rialland, Audrey Grain, Marie-Christine Béné, Marion Eveillard, Marie Vincent, Julien Guy, Laurence Faivre, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Julien Thevenon, Kasiani Myers, Mark D. Fleming, Akiko Shimamura, Elodie Bottollier-Lemallaz, Eric Westhof, Claudia Lengerke, Bertrand Isidor, Seiamak Bahram
NK cells, lymphocytes of the innate immune system, are important for defense against infectious pathogens and cancer. Classically, the CD56dim NK cell subset is thought to mediate antitumor responses, whereas the CD56bright subset is involved in immunomodulation. Here, we challenge this paradigm by demonstrating that brief priming with IL-15 markedly enhanced the antitumor response of CD56bright NK cells. Priming improved multiple CD56bright cell functions: degranulation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production. Primed CD56bright cells from leukemia patients demonstrated enhanced responses to autologous blasts in vitro, and primed CD56bright cells controlled leukemia cells in vivo in a murine xenograft model. Primed CD56bright cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients displayed superior responses to autologous myeloma targets, and furthermore, CD56bright NK cells from MM patients primed with the IL-15 receptor agonist ALT-803 in vivo displayed enhanced ex vivo functional responses to MM targets. Effector mechanisms contributing to IL-15–based priming included improved cytotoxic protein expression, target cell conjugation, and LFA-1–, CD2-, and NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells. Finally, IL-15 robustly stimulated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways in CD56bright compared with CD56dim NK cells, and blockade of these pathways attenuated antitumor responses. These findings identify CD56bright NK cells as potent antitumor effectors that warrant further investigation as a cancer immunotherapy.
Julia A. Wagner, Maximillian Rosario, Rizwan Romee, Melissa M. Berrien-Elliott, Stephanie E. Schneider, Jeffrey W. Leong, Ryan P. Sullivan, Brea A. Jewell, Michelle Becker-Hapak, Timothy Schappe, Sara Abdel-Latif, Aaron R. Ireland, Devika Jaishankar, Justin A. King, Ravi Vij, Dennis Clement, Jodie Goodridge, Karl-Johan Malmberg, Hing C. Wong, Todd A. Fehniger
Osteocalcin (OCN) is an osteoblast-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. The cDNA sequence of OCN predicts that, like many other peptide hormones, OCN is first synthesized as a prohormone (pro-OCN). The importance of pro-OCN maturation in regulating OCN and the identity of the endopeptidase responsible for pro-OCN cleavage in osteoblasts are still unknown. Here, we show that the proprotein convertase furin is responsible for pro-OCN maturation in vitro and in vivo. Using pharmacological and genetic experiments, we also determined that furin-mediated pro-OCN cleavage occurred independently of its γ-carboxylation, a posttranslational modification that is known to hamper OCN endocrine action. However, because pro-OCN is not efficiently decarboxylated and activated during bone resorption, inactivation of furin in osteoblasts in mice resulted in decreased circulating levels of undercarboxylated OCN, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that Furin deletion in osteoblasts reduced appetite, a function not modulated by OCN, thus suggesting that osteoblasts may secrete additional hormones that regulate different aspects of energy metabolism. Accordingly, the metabolic defects of the mice lacking furin in osteoblasts became more apparent under pair-feeding conditions. These findings identify furin as an important regulator of bone endocrine function.
Omar El-Rifai, Jacqueline Chow, Julie Lacombe, Catherine Julien, Denis Faubert, Delia Susan-Resiga, Rachid Essalmani, John W.M. Creemers, Nabil G. Seidah, Mathieu Ferron
Atherosclerosis is the underlying etiology of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a heterogeneous disease in which only a small fraction of lesions lead to heart attack, stroke, or sudden cardiac death. A distinct type of plaque containing large necrotic cores with thin fibrous caps often precipitates these acute events. Here, we show that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase γ (CaMKIIγ) in macrophages plays a major role in the development of necrotic, thin-capped plaques. Macrophages in necrotic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques in humans as well as advanced atherosclerotic lesions in mice demonstrated activation of CaMKII. Western diet–fed LDL receptor–deficient (Ldlr–/–) mice with myeloid-specific deletion of CaMKII had smaller necrotic cores with concomitantly thicker collagen caps. These lesions demonstrated evidence of enhanced efferocytosis, which was associated with increased expression of the macrophage efferocytosis receptor MerTK. Mechanistic studies revealed that CaMKIIγ-deficient macrophages and atherosclerotic lesions lacking myeloid CaMKIIγ had increased expression of the transcription factor ATF6. We determined that ATF6 induces liver X receptor-α (LXRα), an Mertk-inducing transcription factor, and that increased MerTK expression and efferocytosis in CaMKIIγ-deficient macrophages is dependent on LXRα. These findings identify a macrophage CaMKIIγ/ATF6/LXRα/MerTK pathway as a key factor in the development of necrotic atherosclerotic plaques.
Amanda C. Doran, Lale Ozcan, Bishuang Cai, Ze Zheng, Gabrielle Fredman, Christina C. Rymond, Bernhard Dorweiler, Judith C. Sluimer, Joanne Hsieh, George Kuriakose, Alan R. Tall, Ira Tabas
Netrin-1 is a secreted protein that was first identified 20 years ago as an axon guidance molecule that regulates midline crossing in the CNS. It plays critical roles in various tissues throughout development and is implicated in tumorigenesis and inflammation in adulthood. Despite extensive studies, no inherited human disease has been directly associated with mutations in NTN1, the gene coding for netrin-1. Here, we have identified 3 mutations in exon 7 of NTN1 in 2 unrelated families and 1 sporadic case with isolated congenital mirror movements (CMM), a disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one hand that mirror intentional movements of the opposite hand. Given the diverse roles of netrin-1, the absence of manifestations other than CMM in NTN1 mutation carriers was unexpected. Using multimodal approaches, we discovered that the anatomy of the corticospinal tract (CST) is abnormal in patients with NTN1-mutant CMM. When expressed in HEK293 or stable HeLa cells, the 3 mutated netrin-1 proteins were almost exclusively detected in the intracellular compartment, contrary to WT netrin-1, which is detected in both intracellular and extracellular compartments. Since netrin-1 is a diffusible extracellular cue, the pathophysiology likely involves its loss of function and subsequent disruption of axon guidance, resulting in abnormal decussation of the CST.
Aurélie Méneret, Elizabeth A. Franz, Oriane Trouillard, Thomas C. Oliver, Yvrick Zagar, Stephen P. Robertson, Quentin Welniarz, R.J. MacKinlay Gardner, Cécile Gallea, Myriam Srour, Christel Depienne, Christine L. Jasoni, Caroline Dubacq, Florence Riant, Jean-Charles Lamy, Marie-Pierre Morel, Raphael Guérois, Jessica Andreani, Coralie Fouquet, Mohamed Doulazmi, Marie Vidailhet, Guy A. Rouleau, Alexis Brice, Alain Chédotal, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze, David Markie
In psoriasis, an IL-17–mediated inflammatory skin disease, skin lesions resolve with therapy, but often recur in the same locations when therapy is discontinued. We propose that residual T cell populations in resolved psoriatic lesions represent the pathogenic T cells of origin in this disease. Utilizing high-throughput screening (HTS) of the T cell receptor (TCR) and immunostaining, we found that clinically resolved psoriatic lesions contained oligoclonal populations of T cells that produced IL-17A in both resolved and active psoriatic lesions. Putative pathogenic clones preferentially utilized particular Vβ and Vα subfamilies. We identified 15 TCRβ and 4 TCRα antigen receptor sequences shared between psoriasis patients and not observed in healthy controls or other inflammatory skin conditions. To address the relative roles of αβ versus γδ T cells in psoriasis, we carried out TCR/δ HTS. These studies demonstrated that the majority of T cells in psoriasis and healthy skin are αβ T cells. γδ T cells made up 1% of T cells in active psoriasis, less than 1% in resolved psoriatic lesions, and less than 2% in healthy skin. All of the 70 most frequent putative pathogenic T cell clones were αβ T cells. In summary, IL-17–producing αβ T cell clones with psoriasis-specific antigen receptors exist in clinically resolved psoriatic skin lesions. These cells likely represent the disease-initiating pathogenic T cells in psoriasis, suggesting that lasting control of this disease will require suppression of these resident T cell populations.
Tiago R. Matos, John T. O’Malley, Elizabeth L. Lowry, David Hamm, Ilan R. Kirsch, Harlan S. Robins, Thomas S. Kupper, James G. Krueger, Rachael A. Clark